#### Medication – Wikipedia

Substance used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease

Medication

Packages of medication

Other names medicine, drug, pharmaceutical, pharmaceutical preparation, pharmaceutical product, medicinal product, medicament, remedy, medication drugs.etc
A medication is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease

A medication (also referred to as medicine, pharmaceutical drug, or simply drug) is a drug used to diagnose, cure, treat, or prevent disease.[1][2][3] Drug therapy (pharmacotherapy) is an important part of the medical field and relies on the science of pharmacology for continual advancement and on pharmacy for appropriate management.

Drugs are classified in multiple ways. One of the key divisions is by level of control, which distinguishes prescription drugs (those that a pharmacist dispenses only on the order of a physician, physician assistant, or qualified nurse) from over-the-counter drugs (those that consumers can order for themselves). Another key distinction is between traditional small-molecule drugs, usually derived from chemical synthesis, and biopharmaceuticals, which include recombinant proteins, vaccines, blood products used therapeutically (such as IVIG), gene therapy, monoclonal antibodies and cell therapy (for instance, stem-cell therapies). Other ways to classify medicines are by mode of action, route of administration, biological system affected, or therapeutic effects. An elaborate and widely used classification system is the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System (ATC system). The World Health Organization keeps a list of essential medicines.

Drug discovery and drug development are complex and expensive endeavors undertaken by pharmaceutical companies, academic scientists, and governments. As a result of this complex path from discovery to commercialization, partnering has become a standard practice for advancing drug candidates through development pipelines. Governments generally regulate what drugs can be marketed, how drugs are marketed, and in some jurisdictions, drug pricing. Controversies have arisen over drug pricing and disposal of used drugs.

## Definition

In Europe, the term is “medicinal product”, and it is defined by EU law as:

• “Any substance or combination of substances presented as having properties for treating or preventing disease in human beings; or”
• “Any substance or combination of substances which may be used in or administered to human beings either with a view to restoring, correcting or modifying physiological functions by exerting a pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action, or to making a medical diagnosis.”[4]:36

In the US, a “drug” is:

• A substance recognized by an official pharmacopeia or formulary.
• A substance intended for use in the diagnosis, cure, mitigation, treatment, or prevention of disease.
• A substance (other than food) intended to affect the structure or any function of the body.
• A substance intended for use as a component of a medicine but not a device or a component, part or accessory of a device.
• Biological products are included within this definition and are generally covered by the same laws and regulations, but differences exist regarding their manufacturing processes (chemical process versus biological process).[5]

Drug use among elderly Americans has been studied; in a group of 2377 people with average age of 71 surveyed

#### Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fitness in biology is the relative ability of an organism to survive and pass on its genes to the next generation.[1]p160 It is a central idea in evolutionary theory. Fitness is usually equal to the proportion of the individual’s genes in all the genes of the next generation.

Like all terms in evolutionary biology, fitness is defined in terms of an interbreeding population, which might or might not be a whole species. If differences in individual genotypes affect fitness, then the frequencies of the genotypes will change over generations; the genotypes with higher fitness become more common. This is the process called natural selection.

An individual’s fitness is caused by its phenotype, and passed on by its genotype. The fitnesses of different individuals with the same genotype are not necessarily equal. It depends on the environment in which the individuals live, and on accidental events. However, since the fitness of the genotype is an averaged quantity, it reflects the reproductive outcomes of all individuals with that genotype.

Fitness measures the number of the copies of the genes of an individual in the next generation. It doesn’t really matter how the genes arrive in the next generation. For an individual, it is equally “beneficial” to reproduce itself, or to help relatives with similar genes to reproduce, as long as similar number of copies of individual’s genes get passed on to the next generation. Selection which promotes this kind of helper behaviour is called kin selection.

Our closest relatives (parents, siblings, and our own children) share on average 50% (half) of our genes. One step further removed are grandparents. With each of them we share on average 25% (a quarter) of our genes. That is a measure of our relatedness to them. Next come first cousins (children of our parents’ siblings). We share 12.5% (1/8) of their genes.[2]p100

### Hamilton’s rule

William Hamilton added various ideas to the notion of fitness. His rule suggests that a costly action should be performed if:

${displaystyle C

where:

• ${displaystyle c }$

is the reproductive cost to the altruist,

• ${displaystyle b }$

is the reproductive benefit to the recipient of the altruistic behavior, and
• is the probability, above the population average, of the individuals sharing an altruistic gene – the “degree of relatedness”.

Fitness costs and benefits are measured in fecundity.[3]

### Inclusive fitness

Inclusive fitness is a term which is essentially the same as fitness, but emphasises the group of genes rather than individuals.

Biological fitness says how well an organism can reproduce, and spread its genes to its offspring. The theory of inclusive fitness says that the fitness of an organism is also increased to the extent that its close relatives also reproduce. This is because relatives share genes in proportion to their relationship.

Another way of saying it: the inclusive fitness of an organism is

#### Personal trainer – Wikipedia

Il personal trainer (anche detto allenatore personale e convenzionalmente indicato dalla sigla PT) è la figura professionale preposta a gestire in maniera individualizzata l’esercizio fisico di coloro che si avvicinano o praticano attività fisica per migliorare il proprio stato di salute o di forma fisica.

Un’altra importante area di intervento del personal trainer è relativa all’educazione a stili di vita salutari e al ruolo di motivatore nell’ambito della pratica dell’attività fisica.

Il background culturale di un personal trainer è di tipo interdisciplinare, in continua formazione ed aggiornamento, passa attraverso la fisiologia, l’anatomia funzionale, la psicologia, la medicina dello sport, l’allenamento e la nutrizione.

In generale, la sua attività consiste nell’educare il proprio cliente a stili di vita salutari ed a programmare e realizzare allenamenti finalizzati ad un determinato scopo, sulla base delle esigenze fisiologiche e psicologiche di una persona.

Più in particolare l’attività pratica del Personal Trainer per il proprio cliente si svolge in diverse fasi: l’intervista iniziale, la valutazione antropometrica e funzionale, l’elaborazione e l’esecuzione di un programma di allenamento personalizzato, il controllo dell’efficacia del lavoro programmato.

Ultimamente, seguendo le tendenze del settore fitness, il personal trainer ha affiancato, alla consueta consulenza atletica, anche quella di miglioramento della sfera psicologica e motivazionale, specialmente negli sportivi di alto livello.

In Italia la figura del personal trainer è relativamente recente, tuttavia in discreta espansione, specialmente al centro-nord del Paese.
Se i primi personal trainer erano per lo più appassionati del settore, con alle spalle diversi anni di allenamento, attualmente ci si affida spesso a personal trainer con formazione universitaria.

Il corso di laurea in scienze motorie (ex ISEF), nato nel 1999, prevede l’insegnamento di materie medico-scientifiche come l’anatomia umana, la biochimica e la fisiologia, la fisiologia dell’esercizio, la biomeccanica del movimento e i fondamenti della nutrizione. Tutti elementi che è indispensabile conoscere al fine di poter professionalmente intraprendere la carriera di personal trainer.

Chi non sceglie il percorso accademico deve districarsi tra le tante federazioni, associazioni o enti di promozione sportiva, ed aziende private, che svolgono corsi di formazione per poter avere una preparazione adeguata in tale settore.

La brevità di tali corsi, e le loro differenze, sommate all’assenza di pre-requisiti tra i candidati, fa sì che manchi un know-how uniforme, essenziale per una categoria professionale che vorrebbe esistere, ma che di fatto ancora non c’è, in attesa di una regolamentazione delle professioni sportive ancora inesistente nella realtà italiana.

Essendo una professione non regolamentata infatti non si ha bisogno di specifici requisiti o iscrizione ad apposito albo professionale per essere esercitata.

Il primo strumento nelle mani di un personal trainer utile a costruire un programma di esercizio fisico personalizzato è l’intervista iniziale, ovvero il primo colloquio tra il personal trainer e il soggetto da analizzare. Questa prima fase permette di indagare sulla storia medica, sulle caratteristiche psicologiche individuali e sullo stile di vita di una persona.
Durante l’intervista iniziale vengono poste domande create appositamente per conoscere in maniera approfondita la persona in tutti i suoi lati: lo stato di salute,

#### Physical fitness – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Physical fitness is the ability to be physically active, to move and respond to the environment. People can take various tests to measure their physical performance. Such tests are necessary for some occupations, such as soldiers and firefighters.

Physical fitness has two components: general fitness (a state of health and well-being) and specific fitness (the ability to perform specific aspects of sports or occupations).

The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports — a study group sponsored by the United States Government — declines to offer a simple definition of physical fitness. Instead, it developed the following chart:[1]

Physiological Health related Skill related Sports
Metabolic Body composition Agility Team sport
Morphological Cardiovascular fitness Balance Individual
Other Endurance Power Other
Muscle strength Speed
Reaction time
Other

Health related components: those factors that are related to how well the systems of your body work.

Body composition is the relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bone, water,etc)

Cardiovascular fitness: the ability of the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) to supply oxygen to working muscles during exercise.

Flexibility: the range of movement possible at various joints.

Accordingly, a general-purpose physical fitness program must address those issues.[2]

#### Fitness (biology) – Wikipedia

Expected reproductive success

Fitness (often denoted

${displaystyle w}$

With asexual reproduction, it is sufficient to assign fitnesses to genotypes. With sexual reproduction, genotypes are scrambled every generation. In this case, fitness values can be assigned to alleles by averaging over possible genetic backgrounds. Natural selection tends to make alleles with higher fitness more common over time, resulting in Darwinian evolution.

The term “Darwinian fitness” can be used to make clear the distinction with physical fitness.[1] Fitness does not include a measure of survival or life-span; Herbert Spencer’s well-known phrase “survival of the fittest” should be interpreted as: “Survival of the form (phenotypic or genotypic) that will leave the most copies of itself in successive generations.”

Inclusive fitness differs from individual fitness by including the ability of an allele in one individual to promote the survival and/or reproduction of other individuals that share that allele, in preference to individuals with a different allele. One mechanism of inclusive fitness is kin selection.

## Fitness is a propensity

Fitness is often defined as a propensity or probability, rather than the actual number of offspring. For example, according to Maynard Smith, “Fitness is a property, not of an individual, but of a class of individuals—for example homozygous for allele A at a particular locus. Thus the phrase ’expected number of offspring’ means the average number, not the number produced by some one individual. If the first human infant with a gene for levitation were struck by lightning in its pram, this would not prove the new genotype to have low fitness, but only that the particular child was unlucky.” [2]

Alternatively, “the fitness of the individual—having an array x of phenotypes—is the probability, s(x), that the individual will be included among the group selected as parents of the next generation.”[3]

## Models of fitness: asexuals

To avoid the complications of sex and recombination, we initially restrict our attention to an asexual population without genetic recombination. Then fitnesses can be assigned directly to genotypes rather than having to worry about individual alleles. There are two commonly used measures of fitness; absolute fitness and relative fitness.

### Absolute fitness

The absolute fitness (

${displaystyle W}$

) of a genotype is defined as the proportional change in the abundance of that genotype over one generation attributable to selection. For example, if

${displaystyle n(t)}$

#### Health (band) – Wikipedia

Health (often stylized as HEALTH) is an American noise rock band from Los Angeles, California.

## History

Health was created after its members agreed the name should be an “everyday word.” After reviewing a long list of terms, “health” was the only one not taken.[6]

### Health

Health first gained reputation through a remix of their song “Crimewave” by experimental electronic band Crystal Castles in August 2007. The rendition helped broaden Health’s audience in anticipation for their full-length debut a month later released under LovePump United. The band’s self-titled album was recorded in L.A.’s noise/experimental venue, The Smell. Known for its DIY mystique, Health knew how difficult, yet rewarding, it would be to record in the space. Famiglietti said in an interview, “The room completely changes the tone of anything you want to record; makes a lot of things dark and beautiful. It also makes everything sound like “CLANG!” We didn’t realize how hard it would be at all, we especially weren’t prepared for the Vaquero bar dropping the reggaeton jamz at 1pm every day.”[6] Their unique sound on the album caught the attention of Spin in which they wrote, “The near-innocuous opening track of Health’s self-titled album, “Heaven,” segues into the 36-second neurotic dissonance of “Girl Attorney,” which picks up tempo on its transition into “Triceratops”—a thrashing scourge of screeches, feedback, and gratuitous clanging reminiscent of Liars laced with a relief of a Deerhunter meditation.”[7]

Health released their first remix album in 2008 with remixes of tracks off their debut album. The CD also included 5 data-only tracks that can be accessed through a computer. This was the band’s highest rated album on Pitchfork with a score of eight.[8]

In 2008 the band also opened for the industrial rock band Nine Inch Nails on their Lights In The Sky final tour for five months (July–December).[9]

### Get Color

To promote their 2009 album, Get Color, the band held a sweepstakes contest, in which a winner of a golden ticket was awarded a free trip to Los Angeles to go to Six Flags Magic Mountain with the band. Other prizes included locks of the band members’ hair and posters autographed in blood.[10] The album earned a score of eight from Pitchfork in which the review claimed “Never merely meager, this project delivers, both when you’re waving your orgy-snorkel all blotto on-the-town, and for a soundtrack to serious rumination at your midday desk of harsh reality.” Duzsik agreed with an interviewer that Get Color was indeed more accessible than their self-titled debut, but “It’s still crazy, though.”[8] The track “Die Slow” was released as the album’s single with its music video garnering nearly 500,000 views.[11][12] The album received a positive score of 7.4 on Pitchfork.[13]

The band’s second remix album with tracks from Get Color continued to receive critical acclaim. BBC reviewed the album and said, “Whatever HEALTH’s secret is for excellent remix

#### Physical fitness – Wikipedia

Physical fitness is a state of health and well-being and, more specifically, the ability to perform aspects of sports, occupations and daily activities. Physical fitness is generally achieved through proper nutrition,[1] moderate-vigorous physical exercise,[2] and sufficient rest.[3]

Before the industrial revolution, fitness was defined as the capacity to carry out the day’s activities without undue fatigue. However, with automation and changes in lifestyles physical fitness is now considered a measure of the body’s ability to function efficiently and effectively in work and leisure activities, to be healthy, to resist hypokinetic diseases, and to meet emergency situations.[4]

## Overview

Fitness is defined as the quality or state of being fit.[5] Around 1950, perhaps consistent with the Industrial Revolution and the treatise of World War II, the term “fitness” increased in western vernacular by a factor of ten.[6] The modern definition of fitness describes either a person or machine’s ability to perform a specific function or a holistic definition of human adaptability to cope with various situations. This has led to an interrelation of human fitness and attractiveness that has mobilized global fitness and fitness equipment industries. Regarding specific function, fitness is attributed to persons who possess significant aerobic or anaerobic ability, i.e. endurance or strength. A well-rounded fitness program improves a person in all aspects of fitness compared to practising only one, such as only cardio/respiratory endurance or only weight training.

A comprehensive fitness program tailored to an individual typically focuses on one or more specific skills,[7] and on age-[8] or health-related needs such as bone health.[9] Many sources[10] also cite mental, social and emotional health as an important part of overall fitness. This is often presented in textbooks as a triangle made up of three points, which represent physical, emotional, and mental fitness. Physical fitness can also prevent or treat many chronic health conditions brought on by unhealthy lifestyle or aging.[11] Working out can also help some people sleep better and possibly alleviate some mood disorders in certain individuals.[12]

Developing research has demonstrated that many of the benefits of exercise are mediated through the role of skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ. That is, contracting muscles release multiple substances known as myokines, which promote the growth of new tissue, tissue repair, and various anti-inflammatory functions, which in turn reduce the risk of developing various inflammatory diseases.[13]

## Activity guidelines

The Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans were created by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. This publication recommends that all adults should avoid inactivity to promote good health mentally and physically. For substantial health benefits, adults should participate in at least 150 minutes a week of moderate-intensity, or 75 minutes a week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity, or an equivalent combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activity. Aerobic activity should be performed in episodes of at least 10 minutes, and preferably, it should be spread throughout the week.

New (July 2011) guidelines

#### Medicine – Wikipedia

science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of physical and mental illnesses

Medicine is the science and practice of establishing the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. Medicine encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness. Contemporary medicine applies biomedical sciences, biomedical research, genetics, and medical technology to diagnose, treat, and prevent injury and disease, typically through pharmaceuticals or surgery, but also through therapies as diverse as psychotherapy, external splints and traction, medical devices, biologics, and ionizing radiation, amongst others.[1]

Medicine has been around for thousands of years, during most of which it was an art (an area of skill and knowledge) frequently having connections to the religious and philosophical beliefs of local culture. For example, a medicine man would apply herbs and say prayers for healing, or an ancient philosopher and physician would apply bloodletting according to the theories of humorism. In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied, under the umbrella of medical science). While stitching technique for sutures is an art learned through practice, the knowledge of what happens at the cellular and molecular level in the tissues being stitched arises through science.

Prescientific forms of medicine are now known as traditional medicine and folk medicine, though they do not fall within the modern definition of “medicine” which is based in medical science. Traditional medicine and folk medicine remain commonly used with, or instead of, scientific medicine and are thus called alternative medicine (meaning “[something] other than medicine”, from Latin alter, “other”). For example, evidence on the effectiveness of acupuncture is “variable and inconsistent” for any condition,[2] but is generally safe when done by an appropriately trained practitioner.[3] In contrast, alternative treatments outside the bounds not just of scientific medicine, but also outside the bounds of safety and efficacy are termed quackery.

Quackery can encompass an array of practices and practitioners, irrespective of whether they are prescientific (traditional medicine and folk medicine) or modern pseudo-scientific, including chiropractic which rejects modern scientific germ theory of disease (instead believing without evidence that human diseases are caused by invisible subluxation of the bones, predominantly of the spine and less so of other bones), with just over half of chiropractors also rejecting the science of immunization.

## Etymology

Medicine (, ) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.[4][5] The word “medicine” is derived from Latin medicus, meaning “a physician”.[6][7]

## Clinical practice

Medical availability and clinical practice varies across the world due to regional differences in culture and technology. Modern scientific medicine is highly developed in the Western world, while in developing countries such as parts of Africa or Asia, the population may rely more heavily on traditional medicine with limited evidence and efficacy and no required formal training for

#### Dentist – Wikipedia

Healthcare occupation

A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity. The dentist’s supporting team aids in providing oral health services. The dental team includes dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, and sometimes dental therapists.

## History

### Middle Ages

In China as well as France, the first people to perform dentistry were barbers. They have been categorized into 2 distinct groups: guild of barbers and lay barbers. The first group, the Guild of Barbers, was created to distinguish more educated and qualified dental surgeons from lay barbers. Guild barbers were trained to do complex surgeries. The second group, the lay barbers, were qualified to perform regular hygienic services such as shaving and tooth extraction as well as basic surgery. However, in 1400 France made decrees prohibiting lay barbers from practicing all types of surgery. In Germany as well as France from 1530 to 1575 publications completely devoted to dentistry were being published. Ambrose Pare, often known as the Father of Surgery, published his own work about the proper maintenance and treatment of teeth. Ambrose Pare was a French barber surgeon who performed dental care for multiple French monarchs. He is often credited with having raised the status of barber surgeons.[1][2]

### Modern dentistry

A man being treated by dentists

Pierre Fauchard of France is often referred to as the “father of modern dentistry” for being the first to publish a scientific textbook (1728) on the techniques and practices of dentistry.[3] Over time, trained dentists immigrated from Europe to the Americas to practice dentistry, and by 1760, America had its own native born practicing dentists. Newspapers were used at the time to advertise and promote dental services. In America from 1768–1770 the first application of dentistry to verify forensic cases was being pioneered; this was called forensic dentistry. With the rise of dentists there was also the rise of new methods to improve the quality of dentistry. These new methods included the spinning wheel to rotate a drill and chairs made specifically for dental patients.[4]

In the 1840s the world’s first dental school and national dental organization were established. Along with the first dental school came the establishment of the Doctor of Dental Surgery degree, often referred to as a DDS degree. In response to the rise in new dentists as well as dentistry techniques, the first dental practice act was established to regulate dentistry. In the United States, the First Dental Practice Act required dentists to pass each specific states medical board exam in order to practice dentistry in that particular state. However, because the dental act was rarely enforced, some dentists did not obey the act. From 1846–1855 new dental techniques were being invented such as the use of ester anesthesia for surgery, and the cohesive gold foil method which enabled gold to be applied to a

#### Dentistry – Wikipedia

Occupation A dentist treats a patient with the help of a dental assistant. Profession Health care, Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Medicine, Pharmacology, Cosmesis, Surgery Sub-Millimeter Surgical Dexterity Knowledge of human health, disease, pathology, and anatomy Communication/Interpersonal Skills Analytical Skills Critical Thinking Empathy/Professionalism Dental Degree, Medical Degree Private practices Primary care clinics Hospitals

Dentistry, also known as dental medicine and oral medicine, is a branch of medicine that consists of the study, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and conditions of the oral cavity, commonly in the dentition but also the oral mucosa, and of adjacent and related structures and tissues, particularly in the maxillofacial (jaw and facial) area.[1] Although primarily associated with teeth among the general public, the field of dentistry or dental medicine is not limited to teeth but includes other aspects of the craniofacial complex including the temporomandibular joint and other supporting, muscular, lymphatic, nervous, vascular, and anatomical structures.

Dentistry is often also understood to subsume the now largely defunct medical specialty of stomatology (the study of the mouth and its disorders and diseases) for which reason the two terms are used interchangeably in certain regions.[where?]

Dental treatments are carried out by a dental team, which often consists of a dentist and dental auxiliaries (dental assistants, dental hygienists, dental technicians, as well as dental therapists). Most dentists either work in private practices (primary care), dental hospitals or (secondary care) institutions (prisons, armed forces bases, etc.).

The history of dentistry is almost as ancient as the history of humanity and civilization with the earliest evidence dating from 7000 BC. Remains from the early Harappan periods of the Indus Valley Civilization (c. 3300 BC) show evidence of teeth having been drilled dating back 9,000 years.[2] It is thought that dental surgery was the first specialization from medicine.[3] The modern movement of evidence-based dentistry calls for the use of high-quality scientific evidence to guide decision-making.

## Terminology

The term dentistry comes from dentist, which comes from French dentiste, which comes from the French and Latin words for tooth.[4] The term for the associated scientific study of teeth is odontology (from Ancient Greek ὀδούς (odoús, “tooth”)) – the study of the structure, development, and abnormalities of the teeth.

## Dental treatment

Dentistry usually encompasses practices related to the oral cavity.[5] According to the World Health Organization, oral diseases are major public health problems due to their high incidence and prevalence across the globe, with the disadvantaged affected more than other socio-economic groups.[6]

The majority of dental treatments are carried out to prevent or treat the two most common oral diseases which are dental caries (tooth decay) and periodontal disease (gum disease or pyorrhea). Common treatments involve the restoration of teeth, extraction or surgical removal of teeth, scaling and root planing, endodontic root canal treatment and cosmetic dentistry[7]

All dentists in