Is there a relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement? Positive results from public school children in the northeastern United … – PubMed


To determine relationships between physical fitness and academic achievement in diverse, urban public school children.


This cross-sectional study used public school data from 2004 to 2005. Academic achievement was assessed as a passing score on Massachusetts Comprehensive Assessment System (MCAS) achievement tests in Mathematics (fourth, sixth, and eighth grade, n = 1103) and in English (fourth and seventh grade, n = 744). Fitness achievement was assessed as the number of physical fitness tests passed during physical education (PE). Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the probability of passing the MCAS tests, controlling for students’ weight status (BMI z score), ethnicity, gender, grade, and socioeconomic status (school lunch enrollment).


The odds of passing both the MCAS Mathematics test and the MCAS English test increased as the number of fitness tests passed increased (p < .0001 and p < .05, respectively).


Results show statistically significant relationships between fitness and academic achievement, though the direction of causation is not known. While more research is required, promoting fitness by increasing opportunities for physical activity during PE, recess, and out of school time may support academic achievement.

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Working relationship between dentists and dental hygienists: their perceptions. – PubMed

The purpose of this study was to reexamine the working relationship between the dentist and the dental hygienist with regard to delegation and professional interaction. A questionnaire was mailed to Michigan dentists and dental hygienists to acquire data regarding dental hygiene practice, office procedures, and employer/employee interaction. Of the 500 dentists surveyed, 289 (58%) returned questionnaires, and of the 360 hygienists surveyed, 298 (83%) returned questionnaires. The dental hygienists’ perception of their practice is significantly different from the dentists’ in several major areas. More than half of the dentists reported checking the hygienist’s work all of the time, whereas only one third of the hygienists reported always being checked. Assessment of patient needs by a clinical caries examination is perceived differently. Most of the hygienists reported they perform clinical caries examinations all of the time, whereas only two thirds of the dentists reported the hygienist always performs an examination. Delegation of auxiliary procedures is viewed similarly by both dentists and hygienists, but procedures which can be performed are not being delegated. With respect to professional communications, half of the dentists perceive that they provide feedback to the hygienist all of the time, while only one third of the hygienists feel they receive feedback all of the time. In determining the recall interval, most of the dentists reported establishing it in consultation with the hygienist, whereas half of the hygienists reported setting it alone. Data suggest that the dentists’ perceptions are inconsistent with the hygienists’ in role delineation and patient care.

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