Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fitness in biology is the relative ability of an organism to survive and pass on its genes to the next generation.[1]p160 It is a central idea in evolutionary theory. Fitness is usually equal to the proportion of the individual’s genes in all the genes of the next generation.

Like all terms in evolutionary biology, fitness is defined in terms of an interbreeding population, which might or might not be a whole species. If differences in individual genotypes affect fitness, then the frequencies of the genotypes will change over generations; the genotypes with higher fitness become more common. This is the process called natural selection.

An individual’s fitness is caused by its phenotype, and passed on by its genotype. The fitnesses of different individuals with the same genotype are not necessarily equal. It depends on the environment in which the individuals live, and on accidental events. However, since the fitness of the genotype is an averaged quantity, it reflects the reproductive outcomes of all individuals with that genotype.

Fitness measures the number of the copies of the genes of an individual in the next generation. It doesn’t really matter how the genes arrive in the next generation. For an individual, it is equally “beneficial” to reproduce itself, or to help relatives with similar genes to reproduce, as long as similar number of copies of individual’s genes get passed on to the next generation. Selection which promotes this kind of helper behaviour is called kin selection.

Our closest relatives (parents, siblings, and our own children) share on average 50% (half) of our genes. One step further removed are grandparents. With each of them we share on average 25% (a quarter) of our genes. That is a measure of our relatedness to them. Next come first cousins (children of our parents’ siblings). We share 12.5% (1/8) of their genes.[2]p100

Hamilton’s rule[change | change source]

William Hamilton added various ideas to the notion of fitness. His rule suggests that a costly action should be performed if:

where:
  • is the reproductive cost to the altruist,
  • is the reproductive benefit to the recipient of the altruistic behavior, and
  • is the probability, above the population average, of the individuals sharing an altruistic gene – the “degree of relatedness”.

Fitness costs and benefits are measured in fecundity.[3]

Inclusive fitness[change | change source]

Inclusive fitness is a term which is essentially the same as fitness, but emphasises the group of genes rather than individuals.

Biological fitness says how well an organism can reproduce, and spread its genes to its offspring. The theory of inclusive fitness says that the fitness of an organism is also increased to the extent that its close relatives also reproduce. This is because relatives share genes in proportion to their relationship.

Another way of saying it: the inclusive fitness of an organism is

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Physical fitness – Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Physical fitness is the ability to be physically active, to move and respond to the environment. People can take various tests to measure their physical performance. Such tests are necessary for some occupations, such as soldiers and firefighters.

Physical fitness has two components: general fitness (a state of health and well-being) and specific fitness (the ability to perform specific aspects of sports or occupations).

The President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports — a study group sponsored by the United States Government — declines to offer a simple definition of physical fitness. Instead, it developed the following chart:[1]

Physiological Health related Skill related Sports
Metabolic Body composition Agility Team sport
Morphological Cardiovascular fitness Balance Individual
Bone integrity Flexibility Coordination Lifetime
Other Endurance Power Other
Muscle strength Speed
Reaction time
Other

Health related components: those factors that are related to how well the systems of your body work.

Body composition is the relative percentage of body fat compared to lean body mass (muscle, bone, water,etc)

Cardiovascular fitness: the ability of the circulatory system (heart and blood vessels) to supply oxygen to working muscles during exercise.

Flexibility: the range of movement possible at various joints.

Accordingly, a general-purpose physical fitness program must address those issues.[2]


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Health | Wex Legal Dictionary / Encyclopedia

Health Law: An Overview

Broadly defined, health law includes the law of public health, health care generally, and medical care specifically. Preserving public health is a primary duty of the state. Health regulations and laws are therefore almost all administered at the state level. Many states delegate authority to subordinate governmental agencies such as boards of health. These boards are created by legislative acts.

Federal health law focuses on the activity of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). It administers a wide variety of agencies and programs, like providing financial assistance to needy individuals; conducting medical and scientific research; providing health care and advocacy services; and enforcing laws and regulations related to human services. An important part of the HHS are the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, which oversee the Medicare and Medicaid Programs. Their goal is to ensure that elderly and needy individuals receive proper medical care.

Private health insurance originated with the Blue Cross system in 1929. The underlying principle was to spread the risk of high hospitalization bills between all individuals. Whether sick or healthy, all school teachers and hospital employees in the Dallas area had to join, ensuring that the risk was spread through a large number of individuals. Blue Shield was later developed under the same principle.

Today, many people receive health care through health maintenance organizations (HMO’s). Managed care essentially creates a triangle relationship between physician, patient, and payer. Physicians are paid a flat per-member per-month fee for basic health care services, regardless of whether the patient seeks those services. The risk that a patient is going to require significant treatment shifts from the insurance company to the physicians under this model. Because of the importance of the industry, HMO’s are heavily regulated. On the federal level the Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973 governs.

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