Definition of Dentist by Merriam-Webster

den·​tist | ˈden-təst How to pronounce dentist (audio)

: one who is skilled in and licensed to practice the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, injuries, and malformations of the teeth, jaws, and mouth and who makes and inserts false teeth

Examples of dentist in a Sentence

I saw her at the dentist last week.

He goes to the dentist’s for a check-up every six months.

Recent Examples on the Web In her own TikTok video documenting the experience, Rendulic acknowledges that her actions wouldn’t be sanctioned by a dentist.

Washington Post, “Millions have watched TikTokers file their own teeth. Now, two of these DIY dentists say: Don’t try it.,” 24 Sep. 2020
An Alaska dentist was also filmed riding a hoverboard during a procedure on a patient who was under anesthesia was convicted on 46 counts of defrauding the federal Medicaid program has been sentenced to 12 years in prison.

CBS News, “Dentist who extracted a patient’s tooth while riding a hoverboard sentenced to 12 years,” 18 Sep. 2020
The infamous hoverboarding dentist of Alaska has been found guilty of fraud and unlawful dental acts and was sentenced to 12 years in prison this week, according to the Anchorage Daily News.


Beth Mole, Ars Technica, “Hoverboarding dentist gets 12 years in prison for fraud, unlawful dental acts,” 17 Sep. 2020
One day at the end of April, dentist Azmera Shaikh tested positive for the novel coronavirus.


Vaishnavi Chandrashekhar, Science | AAAS, “From leprosy to COVID-19, how stigma makes it harder to fight epidemics,” 16 Sep. 2020
Lookhart’s trial included testimony from several of his former patients — including a woman had a tooth pulled while the dentist was standing on a hoverboard.


Ashley Boucher, PEOPLE.com, “Dentist Who Removed Tooth While on a Hoverboard Sentenced to 12 Years Behind Bars,” 16 Sep. 2020
In some situations that involve, say, a restaurant and a dentist with the same name, the courts usually rule that the businesses are different enough to avoid confusion.


Caroline Glenn, orlandosentinel.com, “Orlando Mills 50 bakery ‘Paris Bánh Mì’ sues competitor with a similar name for copyright infringement,” 14 Sep. 2020
At 25 points, surfing was somehow rated riskier than going to IKEA (20 points), which was only one point more than going to the dentist.


Annie Vainshtein, SFChronicle.com, “How does an SF house with 11 roommates navigate the coronavirus? It’s complicated,” 18 Sep. 2020
Court records show the dentist was due back in court Dec. 7, when he was expected to begin serving his sentence.

NBC News, “Hoverboard-riding dentist sentenced to 12 years for Medicaid fraud,” 17 Sep. 2020

These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word ‘dentist.’ Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

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First Known Use of dentist

circa 1746, in the meaning defined above

History and Etymology for

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definition of fitness by Medical dictionary

fit·ness

(fit’nes),

1. Well-being.

2. Suitability.

3. In population genetics, a measure of the relative survival and reproductive success of a given individual or phenotype, or of a population subgroup.

4. A set of attributes, primarily respiratory and cardiovascular, relating to ability to perform tasks requiring expenditure of energy.

Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

fitness

(fĭt′nĭs)

n.

1. The state or condition of being fit; suitability or appropriateness.

2. Good health, especially good physical condition resulting from exercise and proper nutrition.

3. Biology The extent to which an organism is able to produce offspring in a particular environment.

The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

fitness

Health The ability or capacity to perform a particular task. See Aerobic fitness, Cardioivascular fitness, Physical fitness.

McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

fit·ness

(fit’nĕs)

1. Well-being.

2. Suitability.

3. population genetics A measure of the relative survival and reproductive success of a given individual or phenotype, or of a population subgroup.

4. A set of attributes, primarily respiratory and cardiovascular, relating to the ability to perform tasks requiring expenditures of energy.

Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

fitness

The ability to undertake sustained physical exertion without undue breathlessness. Fitness is associated with a sense of physical and mental well being. The achievement of fitness is possible only by making regular demands on the body to perform physical tasks. As fitness improves the bulk and strength of the voluntary muscles and the force and pumping efficiency of the heart muscle increase. The respiratory muscles perform more effectively. The subject is able to perform more work within the limits of the rate at which oxygen is supplied by the lungs and circulation (aerobic exercise). Recovery from fatigue is more rapid, a higher degree of muscle tension can be attained, the muscles are able to utilize glucose and fatty acids in the presence of less insulin, and the liver is better able to maintain the supply of glucose to the blood, and hence to the muscles, during strenuous exercise. The energy-producing elements in the muscle cells (the mitochondria) increase in size and number.

Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

fitness

the ability of an organism to transfer its genes to the next generation. Organisms favoured by SELECTION (natural or artificial) have a high fitness, while those subjected to adverse selection pressure have a low fitness. Thus, under conditions of insecticide treatment, resistant members of an insect population will have a high fitness and produce more offspring as compared to susceptible individuals that have a low fitness.

Collins Dictionary of Biology, 3rd ed. © W. G. Hale, V. A. Saunders, J. P. Margham 2005

fit·ness

(fit’nĕs)

1. Well-being.

2. Suitability.

Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012

Patient discussion about fitness

Q. I mean what this fitness

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dentistry | Definition, History, & Fields

Early dentistry

Dentistry, in some form, has been practiced since ancient times. For example, Egyptian skulls dating from 2900 to 2750 bce contain evidence of small holes in the jaw in the vicinity of a tooth’s roots. Such holes are believed to have been drilled to drain abscesses. In addition, accounts of dental treatment appear in Egyptian scrolls dating from 1500 bce. It is thought that the Egyptians practiced oral surgery perhaps as early as 2500 bce, although evidence for this is minimal. An early attempt at tooth replacement dates to Phoenicia (modern Lebanon) around 600 bce, where missing teeth were replaced with animal teeth and were bound into place with cord.

True restorative dentistry began with the Etruscans, who lived in the area of what is today central and northern Italy. Numerous dental bridges and partial dentures of gold have been found in Etruscan tombs, which date to about 500 bce. The Romans, who conquered the Etruscans, adopted Etruscan culture, and dentistry became a regular part of Roman medical practice. The Greeks also practiced some form of oral medicine, including tooth extractions, from the time of Hippocrates, around 400 bce.

In the Eastern world, dentistry had a totally different history. There is evidence that the early Chinese practiced some restorative dentistry as early as the year 200 bce, using silver amalgam as fillings. Oral medicine was part of the regular medical practice in other early Asian civilizations, such as those in India and Japan.

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Because of the proscription in the Qurʾan, the sacred scripture of Islam, against mutilating the body, surgery was not practiced in Islamic countries. Instead, reliance was placed upon healing through the use of herbs and medicines; preventive dentistry through strict adherence to oral hygiene became paramount. The writings of early Arabic physicians, such as Avicenna and Abū al-Qāsim, show that scaling and cleaning of teeth were practiced. Extractions were rare and were performed only when a tooth had been loosened.

Development of dentistry in Europe

With the demise of the western Roman Empire about the year 475 ce, medicine in Europe declined into a torpor that would last for almost a thousand years. About the only places where medicine or surgery was practiced were monasteries, and monks were aided in their surgical ministrations by the local barbers, who went to the monasteries to cut the monks’ hair and shave the monks’ beards. In 1163 a church council at Tours, France, ordered that henceforth no monks or priests were to practice any surgery, since it was felt that the shedding of blood was incompatible with the holy office of the clergy. Thus, the only people who had any rudimentary knowledge of surgery were the barbers, and they stepped into the breach, calling themselves barber-surgeons. They practiced simple dentistry, including extractions and cleaning of teeth. In the 1600s a number of barber-surgeons began restricting their

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medicine | Definition, Fields, Research, & Facts

Medicine, the practice concerned with the maintenance of health and the prevention, alleviation, or cure of disease.

The World Health Organization at its 1978 international conference held in the Soviet Union produced the Alma-Ata Health Declaration, which was designed to serve governments as a basis for planning health care that would reach people at all levels of society. The declaration reaffirmed that

health, which is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, is a fundamental human right and that the attainment of the highest possible level of health is a most important world-wide social goal whose realization requires the action of many other social and economic sectors in addition to the health sector.

In its widest form, the practice of medicine—that is to say, the promotion and care of health—is concerned with this ideal.

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Organization of health services

It is generally the goal of most countries to have their health services organized in such a way to ensure that individuals, families, and communities obtain the maximum benefit from current knowledge and technology available for the promotion, maintenance, and restoration of health. In order to play their part in this process, governments and other agencies are faced with numerous tasks, including the following: (1) They must obtain as much information as is possible on the size, extent, and urgency of their needs; without accurate information, planning can be misdirected. (2) These needs must then be revised against the resources likely to be available in terms of money, manpower, and materials; developing countries may well require external aid to supplement their own resources. (3) Based on their assessments, countries then need to determine realistic objectives and draw up plans. (4) Finally, a process of evaluation needs to be built into the program; the lack of reliable information and accurate assessment can lead to confusion, waste, and inefficiency.

Health services of any nature reflect a number of interrelated characteristics, among which the most obvious, but not necessarily the most important from a national point of view, is the curative function; that is to say, caring for those already ill. Others include special services that deal with particular groups (such as children or pregnant women) and with specific needs such as nutrition or immunization; preventive services, the protection of the health both of individuals and of communities; health education; and, as mentioned above, the collection and analysis of information.

Levels of health care

In the curative domain there are various forms of medical practice. They may be thought of generally as forming a pyramidal structure, with three tiers representing increasing degrees of specialization and technical sophistication but catering to diminishing numbers of patients as they are filtered out of the system at a lower level. Only those patients who require special attention either for diagnosis or treatment should reach the

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definition of medicine by Medical dictionary

medicine

 [med´ĭ-sin]

1. any drug or remedy.

2. the art and science of the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.

3. the nonsurgical treatment of disease.

aviation medicine the branch of medicine that deals with the physiologic, medical, psychologic, and epidemiologic problems involved in flying.

ayurvedic medicine the traditional medicine of India, done according to Hindu scriptures and making use of plants and other healing materials native to India.

clinical medicine

1. the study of disease by direct examination of the living patient.

2. the last two years of the usual curriculum in a medical college.

complementary medicine (complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)) a large and diverse set of systems of diagnosis, treatment, and prevention based on philosophies and techniques other than those used in conventional Western medicine, often derived from traditions of medical practice used in other, non-Western cultures. Such practices may be described as alternative, that is, existing as a body separate from and as a replacement for conventional Western medicine, or complementary, that is, used in addition to conventional Western practice. CAM is characterized by its focus on the whole person as a unique individual, on the energy of the body and its influence on health and disease, on the healing power of nature and the mobilization of the body’s own resources to heal itself, and on the treatment of the underlying causes, rather than symptoms, of disease. Many of the techniques used are the subject of controversy and have not been validated by controlled studies.
emergency medicine the medical specialty that deals with the acutely ill or injured who require immediate medical treatment. See also emergency and emergency care.

experimental medicine study of the science of healing diseases based on experimentation in animals.

group medicine the practice of medicine by a group of physicians, usually representing various specialties, who are associated together for the cooperative diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

internal medicine the medical specialty that deals with diagnosis and medical treatment of diseases and disorders of internal structures of the body.

nuclear medicine the branch of medicine concerned with the use of radionuclides in diagnosis and treatment of disease.

patent medicine a drug or remedy protected by a trademark, available without a prescription.

preclinical medicine the subjects studied in medicine before the student observes actual diseases in patients.

preventive medicine the branch of medical study and practice aimed at preventing disease and promoting health.

proprietary medicine any chemical, drug, or similar preparation used in the treatment of diseases, if such article is protected against free competition as to name, product, composition, or process of manufacture by secrecy, patent, trademark, or copyright, or by other means.

psychosomatic medicine the study of the interrelations between bodily processes and emotional life.

socialized medicine a system of medical care regulated and controlled by the government; called also state medicine.
space medicine the branch of aviation medicine concerned with conditions encountered by human beings in space.

sports medicine the field of

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Underrepresented in Medicine Definition | AAMC

On March 19, 2004, the AAMC Executive Committee adopted a clarification to its definition of “underrepresented in medicine” following the Supreme Court’s decision in Grutter.

The AAMC definition of underrepresented in medicine is:

“Underrepresented in medicine means those racial and ethnic populations that are underrepresented in the medical profession relative to their numbers in the general population.”

Adopted by the AAMC’s Executive Council on June 26, 2003, the definition helps medical schools accomplish three important objectives:

  • a shift in focus from a fixed aggregation of four racial and ethnic groups to a continually evolving underlying reality. The definition accommodates including and removing underrepresented groups on the basis of changing demographics of society and the profession,
  • a shift in focus from a national perspective to a regional or local perspective on underrepresentation, and
  • stimulate data collection and reporting on the broad range of racial and ethnic self-descriptions.
     

Before June 26, 2003, the AAMC used the term “underrepresented minority (URM),” which consisted of Blacks, Mexican-Americans, Native Americans (that is, American Indians, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians), and mainland Puerto Ricans. The AAMC remains committed to ensuring access to medical education and medicine-related careers for individuals from these four historically underrepresented racial/ethnic groups.

Source Article

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Fitness: Definition, factors, and types

Maintaining a good level of physical fitness is something that we should all aspire to do. But it can be difficult to determine what fitness entails. Here we answer the question: what does being physically fit mean?

According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, physical fitness is defined as “a set of attributes that people have or achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity.”

This description goes beyond being able to run fast or lift heavy weights. Despite being important, these attributes only address single areas of fitness. This article provides details of the five main components of physical fitness.

Fast facts on fitness:

  • Maintaining physical fitness can help prevent some diseases.
  • With exercise, body composition can change without changing weight.
  • Athletes’ hearts show different changes dependent on their chosen sport.
  • Muscle strength increases by fiber hypertrophy and neural changes.
  • Stretching to increase flexibility can ease a number of medical complaints.

Being physically fit depends on how well a person fulfills each of the components of being healthful.

When it comes to fitness, these components include

  • cardiorespiratory fitness
  • muscular strength
  • muscular endurance
  • body composition
  • flexibility.

So, you can tell if someone is physically fit by determining how well they perform in each component.

Here we will look at them all individually.

Cardiorespiratory endurance indicates how well our body can supply fuel during physical activity via the body’s circulatory and respiratory systems. Activities that help improve cardiorespiratory endurance are those that cause an elevated heart rate for a sustained period.

These activities include:

  • swimming
  • brisk walking
  • jogging
  • cycling

People who regularly take part in these activities are more likely to be physically fit in terms of cardiorespiratory endurance. It is important to begin these activities slowly and gradually increase the intensity.

Exercising increases cardiorespiratory endurance in a number of ways. The heart muscle is strengthened so that it is able to pump more blood per heartbeat.

At the same time, additional small arteries are grown within muscle tissue so that blood can be delivered to working muscles more effectively when needed.

How does heart health change with exercise?

The heart changes and improves its efficiency after persistent training. However, more recent research shows that different types of activity change the heart in subtly different ways.

All types of exercise increase the heart’s overall size, but there are significant differences between endurance athletes, like rowers, and strength athletes, like football players. Endurance athletes’ hearts show expanded left and right ventricles, whereas strength athletes show thickening of their heart wall, particularly the left ventricle.

How does lung health change with exercise?

While the heart steadily strengthens over time, the respiratory system does not adjust to the same degree. Lung function does not drastically change, but oxygen that is taken in by the lungs is used more effectively.

In general, exercise encourages the body to become more efficient at taking on, distributing, and using oxygen. This improvement, over time, increases endurance and overall health.

The American College

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Definition of Fitness at Dictionary.com

[ fit-nis ]

/ ˈfɪt nɪs /


noun

capability of the body of distributing inhaled oxygen to muscle tissue during increased physical effort.

Also called Darwinian fitness. Biology.
  1. the genetic contribution of an individual to the next generation’s gene pool relative to the average for the population, usually measured by the number of offspring or close kin that survive to reproductive age.
  2. the ability of a population to maintain or increase its numbers in succeeding generations.

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Dictionary.com Unabridged
Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2020

Example sentences from the Web for fitness

British Dictionary definitions for fitness

fitness


noun

the state of being fit

biology
  1. the degree of adaptation of an organism to its environment, determined by its genetic constitution
  2. the ability of an organism to produce viable offspring capable of surviving to the next generation

Collins English Dictionary – Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition
© William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins
Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

Medical definitions for fitness

fitness


n.

The state or condition of being physically sound and healthy, especially as the result of exercise and proper nutrition.

A state of general mental and physical well-being.

The state of being suitably adapted to an environment.

The American Heritage®

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definition of fitness by The Free Dictionary

The former measured all actions by the unalterable rule of right, and the eternal fitness of things; the latter decided all matters by authority; but in doing this, he always used the scriptures and their commentators, as the lawyer doth his Coke upon Lyttleton, where the comment is of equal authority with the text.
The title suggests all kinds of mysteries; a glance at the chapter-headings quickly confirms the suspicions already aroused, and the sub-title: “A Book for All and None”, generally succeeds in dissipating the last doubts the prospective purchaser may entertain concerning his fitness for the book or its fitness for him.
A Dodson would not be taxed with the omission of anything that was becoming, or that belonged to that eternal fitness of things which was plainly indicated in the practice of the most substantial parishioners, and in the family traditions,–such as obedience to parents, faithfulness to kindred, industry, rigid honesty, thrift, the thorough scouring of wooden and copper utensils, the hoarding of coins likely to disappear from the currency, the production of first-rate commodities for the market, and the general preference of whatever was home-made.
He may not kill you, Sarkoja, it is not our custom, but there is nothing to prevent him tying one end of a strap about your neck and the other end to a wild thoat, merely to test your fitness to survive and help perpetuate our race.
“Even your good opinion of my fitness,” replied the Gentleman, “shall not persuade me.”
For in the first hour of meeting you, I had an impression of your eminent and perhaps exclusive fitness to supply that need (connected, I may say, with such activity of the affections as even the preoccupations of a work too special to be abdicated could not uninterruptedly dissimulate); and each succeeding opportunity for observation has given the impression an added depth by convincing me more emphatically of that fitness which I had preconceived, and thus evoking more decisively those affections to which I have but now referred.
As treason is a crime levelled at the immediate being of the society, when the laws have once ascertained the guilt of the offender, there seems a fitness in referring the expediency of an act of mercy towards him to the judgment of the legislature.
As for the metre, the heroic measure has proved its fitness by the test of experience.
He liked to talk and he talked well, adorning his speech with terms of endearment and with folk sayings which Pierre thought he invented himself, but the chief charm of his talk lay in the fact that the commonest events- sometimes just such as Pierre had witnessed without taking notice of them- assumed in Karataev’s a character of solemn fitness. He liked to hear the folk tales one of the soldiers used to tell of an evening
The Senator was by no means to undertake my instruction himself; his nephew, who had just begun to read law, was to
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definition of medicine by The Free Dictionary

medicine

Quotations
“Formerly, when religion was strong and science weak, men mistook magic for medicine; now, when science is strong and religion weak, men mistake medicine for magic” [Thomas Szasz The Second Skin]

Medicine

Branches of medicine  aetiology or etiology, anaesthetics, anaplasty, anatomy, andrology, angiology, audiology, aviation medicine, bacteriology, balneology, bioastronautics, biomedicine, cardiology, chiropody, dental hygiene or oral hygiene, dental surgery, dentistry, dermatology, diagnostics, eccrinology, electrophysiology, electrotherapeutics, embryology, encephalography, endocrinology, endodontics, epidemiology, exodontics, forensic or legal medicine, gastroenterology, genitourinary medicine, geratology, geriatrics, gerontology, gynaecology or (U.S.) gynecology, haematology or (U.S.) hematology, hydrotherapeutics, immunochemistry, immunology, industrial medicine, internal medicine, laryngology, materia medica, midwifery, morbid anatomy, myology, neonatology, nephrology, neuroanatomy, neuroendocrinology, neurology, neuropathology, neurophysiology, neuropsychiatry, neurosurgery, nosology, nostology, nuclear medicine, nutrition, obstetrics, odontology, oncology, ophthalmology, optometry, orthodontics or orthodontia, orthopaedics or (U.S.) orthopedics, orthoptics, orthotics, osteology, osteoplasty, otolaryngology, otology, paediatrics or (U.S.) pediatrics, pathology, periodontics, pharyngology, physical medicine, physiotherapy or (U.S.) physiatrics, plastic surgery, posology, preventive medicine, proctology, psychiatry, psychoanalysis, psychology, radiology, rheumatology, rhinology, serology, space medicine, spare-part surgery, speech therapy, sports medicine, stomatology, surgery, symptomatology, syphilology, therapeutics, tocology or tokology, toxicology, trichology, urology, venereology, veterinary science or medicine, virology

Medical practitioners and specialists  aetiologist or etiologist, anaesthetist, anatomist, andrologist, audiologist, bacteriologist, balneologist, barefoot doctor, cardiologist, chiropodist, consultant, dental hygienist or oral hygienist, dentist or dental surgeon, dermatologist, diagnostician, dietitian, district nurse, doctor, electrophysiologist, embryologist, endocrinologist, endodontist, epidemiologist, exodontist, extern or externe (U.S. & Canad.), forensic scientist, gastroenterologist, general practitioner or GP, geriatrician or geriatrist, gerontologist, gynaecologist or (U.S.) gynecologist, haematologist or (U.S.) hematologist, health visitor, house physician, houseman, hydrotherapist, immunologist, intern or interne (U.S. & Canad.), internist, junior doctor, laboratory technician, laryngologist, matron, midwife, myologist, neonatologist, nephrologist, neuroanatomist, neurologist, neuropathologist, neurophysiologist, neuropsychiatrist, neurosurgeon, nosologist, nurse, nursing officer, nutritionist, obstetrician, occupational therapist, odontologist, oncologist, ophthalmologist, optician, optometrist, orderly, orthodontist, orthopaedist or (U.S.) orthopedist, orthoptist, orthotist, osteologist, otolaryngologist, otologist, paediatrician or (U.S.) pediatrician, paramedic, pathologist, pharyngologist, physiotherapist or physio, plastic surgeon, proctologist, psychiatrist, psychoanalyst, psychologist, radiographer, radiologist, registrar, resident (U.S. & Canad.), rheumatologist, rhinologist, serologist, speech therapist, surgeon, syphilologist, therapist, toxicologist, trichologist, urologist, venereologist, veterinary surgeon, vet or (U.S.) veterinarian, virologist

Medical and surgical instruments and equipment  arthroscope, artificial heart, artificial kidney, aspirator, bandage, bedpan, bistoury, bronchoscope, cannula or canula, cardiograph, catheter, catling, clamp, clinical thermometer, colonoscope, colposcope, compressor, CT scanner or CAT scanner, curet or curette, cystoscope, defibrillator, depressor, dialysis machine, drain, electrocardiograph, electroencephalograph, electromyograph, encephalogram, endoscope, fetoscope, fibrescope or (U.S.) fiberscope, fluoroscope, forceps, gamma camera, gastroscope, gonioscope, haemostat or (U.S.) hemostat, heart-lung machine, heat lamp, hypodermic or hypodermic needle, hypodermic or hypodermic syringe, inhalator, inspirator, iron lung, kidney machine, kymograph or cymograph, lancet or lance, laparoscope, laryngoscope, life-support machine, microscope, nebulizer, needle, nephroscope, oesophagoscope or (U.S.) esophagoscope, ophthalmoscope, orthoscope, otoscope, oxygen mask, oxygen tent, pacemaker, packing, perimeter, pharyngoscope, plaster cast, pneumatometer, pneumograph, probe, proctoscope, Pulmotor (trademark), raspatory, respirator, resuscitator, retinoscope, retractor, rheometer, rhinoscope, roentgenoscope or röntgenoscope, scalpel, scanner, skiascope, sling, sound, specimen bottle, speculum, sphygmograph, sphygmomanometer, spirograph, spirometer, splint, stethoscope, stomach pump,

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