Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Fitness in biology is the relative ability of an organism to survive and pass on its genes to the next generation.[1]p160 It is a central idea in evolutionary theory. Fitness is usually equal to the proportion of the individual’s genes in all the genes of the next generation.

Like all terms in evolutionary biology, fitness is defined in terms of an interbreeding population, which might or might not be a whole species. If differences in individual genotypes affect fitness, then the frequencies of the genotypes will change over generations; the genotypes with higher fitness become more common. This is the process called natural selection.

An individual’s fitness is caused by its phenotype, and passed on by its genotype. The fitnesses of different individuals with the same genotype are not necessarily equal. It depends on the environment in which the individuals live, and on accidental events. However, since the fitness of the genotype is an averaged quantity, it reflects the reproductive outcomes of all individuals with that genotype.

Fitness measures the number of the copies of the genes of an individual in the next generation. It doesn’t really matter how the genes arrive in the next generation. For an individual, it is equally “beneficial” to reproduce itself, or to help relatives with similar genes to reproduce, as long as similar number of copies of individual’s genes get passed on to the next generation. Selection which promotes this kind of helper behaviour is called kin selection.

Our closest relatives (parents, siblings, and our own children) share on average 50% (half) of our genes. One step further removed are grandparents. With each of them we share on average 25% (a quarter) of our genes. That is a measure of our relatedness to them. Next come first cousins (children of our parents’ siblings). We share 12.5% (1/8) of their genes.[2]p100

Hamilton’s rule[change | change source]

William Hamilton added various ideas to the notion of fitness. His rule suggests that a costly action should be performed if:

  • is the reproductive cost to the altruist,
  • is the reproductive benefit to the recipient of the altruistic behavior, and
  • is the probability, above the population average, of the individuals sharing an altruistic gene – the “degree of relatedness”.

Fitness costs and benefits are measured in fecundity.[3]

Inclusive fitness[change | change source]

Inclusive fitness is a term which is essentially the same as fitness, but emphasises the group of genes rather than individuals.

Biological fitness says how well an organism can reproduce, and spread its genes to its offspring. The theory of inclusive fitness says that the fitness of an organism is also increased to the extent that its close relatives also reproduce. This is because relatives share genes in proportion to their relationship.

Another way of saying it: the inclusive fitness of an organism is

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Top Caribbean Medical School – St. George’s University

Top Caribbean Medical School – St. George’s University

Missed our White Coat Ceremonies? Relive the Moment Right Here.

1,099 US and Canadian Residencies In 2020… and Counting.*

Proud to be the #1 provider of doctors into first-year US residencies for the last 11 years combined.*

*According to published information as of April 2020

Meet SGU: Log on and learn about SGU from anywhere in the world.

Academic Programs

Founded as an independent School of Medicine in 1976, St. George’s University, the Premier Choice in Caribbean Medical Schools, has evolved into a top center of international education, drawing students and faculty from 140 countries to the island of Grenada. The University’s over 21,000 graduates include physicians, veterinarians, scientists, and public health and business professionals across the world.

Take The Next Step

Choosing a medical school is one of the most crucial decisions of your life, and it’s important that you absorb as much information as possible about the choices in front of you. We encourage you to consult with St. George’s University graduates, students, and administrators, who are available to answer any questions you may have about the University curriculum, campus, and track record of student success.

News and Events

Take a glimpse at the latest St. George’s University news–on campus and around the world. You can also join us at an upcoming information session or webinar to learn more about the SGU experience from our students and graduates.

“Can you start tomorrow?”

Alex Kurjatko, MD ’11,…

St. George’s University’s chapter of the American Medical…

Gillian Woodruff, MD ’20 (expected), is “chomping at…

Copyright: St. George’s University – 2020

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HOME | Fitnessconcepts

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Family & Cosmetic Dentistry Cincinnati, OH

A Note From Dr. Miller, your Cincinnati Cosmetic & Family Dentist

Dear Patients,

 I would like to welcome each of you to our new office facility. It is with great pleasure that we can offer to you one of the finest “state of the art” dental facilities in Cincinnati. Many of you have been with me since 1992 when we started our practice from scratch. In fact, the first patient I treated on January 6th, 1992 is still very much a part of my practice. My greatest joy is knowing that we have made a difference to you and your families. We appreciate your kind words and compliments that so many of you have shared over the past 17 years.

It is a sincere pleasure for me to share my own family with you and to get to know each of you on a personal level. Our office has proven to be not just about teeth, but about people and friends. Your expressions of thanks and kind referrals are my way of knowing the value you place with our practice. Thank you for allowing me to share my life with you.

I am especially thankful for my awesome staff! They make our work day fun. They have each contributed something very special to me – a sincere love for our patients, a genuine care for me and my family, and an unsurpassed knowledge of their field. Our patients have one of the best dental practices anywhere because of them.

As our office doors open each day, I reflect on the joys of dentistry and the service we provide. I am especially thankful for each memory I have and the many patients that touch my life. I owe everything to the Lord who has allowed me and Debbie to serve you in your dental health care needs. We value the gift that was given and pray the Lord will guide my hands for the quality dentistry you each deserve.

If you are a new patient searching for genuine care or an established patient already a part of our practice, we say “Welcome” and “Enjoy” the new age of dentistry. Our Smiles are for Life!

Dr. Miller
Cosmetic & Family Dentistry Cincinnati, OH


Our Team

Our friendly office manager and business assistants help with scheduling, billing, insurance questions and coordinating the patients with Dr. Miller. They strive to service the patient with quality treatment and helping them feel good about their smile. Do not be surprised if they greet you with a warm hand shake or give you a treat as you depart. They are here to serve you.

Our Front Office team is the first to welcome you either on the phone or in person. They will always find time to answer your questions and will be there to hold your hand through each process of your treatment. Dr. Miller’s team offers a great First Impression to you the patient from the start to the end of your visit.


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Centre for Health Evaluation & Outcome Sciences

CHEOS: Centre for Health Evaluation & Outcome SciencesCHEOS: Centre for Health Evaluation & Outcome Sciences – Health research in the heart of Vancouver

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Work in Progress (WiP) presentations take place at St. Paul’s Hospital every second week from 12:00 – 1:00pm.

These seminars provide investigators with an opportunity to present ongoing research, obtain feedback from colleagues and peers, and make new connections for their projects. Talks are open, and a light lunch is served.

Health research in the heart of Vancouver

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23 Best Fitness Apps – Top Exercise Apps for iPhone or Android

Listen, your girl loves a solid workout just as much as anyone else. But given the option to exercise or to sleep in an additional 45-ish minutes, I’m obviously opting for the snooze button. The answer to my sleeping-yet-still-want-to-sweat qualm: fitness apps.

If you want to do a quick 15-minute workout in the middle of the night because that’s when it’s most convenient for you, there’s an app for that. No signups or gymtimidation here, ya’ll.

Plus, with all the free time we have now, lots of fitness apps are running special promos, deals, and free trials to provide some ~extra~ endorphins. Whether you’re an athlete or just looking for an extra butt plump, we’ve sifted through the best apps out there. Behold our favorites.

If you want to be apart of a community:

Fit Body App


Anna Victoria is one of the leading Instagram “influencers” who wants to make it as easy as possible for you to workout. She offers three different kinds of workouts through her app: Tone, which features strength and cardio, Shred, which focuses on high-intensity body-weight only exercises, and Sculpt, which is designed for gaining strength at the gym.

She also offers members-only Facebook pages and newsletters for FBG girls to connect with other FBG girls as an option to trudge through the workouts and meal plans together.

$17/month or $120/year on iTunes

If you’re new to this whole fitness thing:



Emily Skye, an Australian-based fitness model turned personal trainer created plans that allow you to work out from home or venture to a gym. Each plan is comprised of five new workouts a week. Bonus fact: After Emily’s first pregnancy, she actually used her own app to start working out again—and documented it all on her Instagram here.

$20/month or $120/year on iTunes

If the main reason you don’t workout is because you have zero time:



The rumors are true: These workouts only take seven—yes, seven!!!—minutes. But in the words of my savior Britney Spears, you gotta work, b*tch… even if it’s only seven minutes. The app’s creators say each workout is meant to provide the maximum benefit in the shortest time possible (so yeah, it won’t be easy—but it will be over soon). Set your goal and fitness level to optimize results for the quickest, most effective workout you could ask for.

Free on iTunes

If you want to pretend like you’re at the gym without ever going to the gym:

GOLD’s Amp Fitness and Training

GOLD’s Amp

Yup, this app is brought to you exclusively by Gold’s Gym. It has over 600 indoor and outdoor workouts. You’ll find bodyweight strength training routines, core workouts, outdoor running coaches, stretching, meditation, and more. Oh, and they have a DJ-curated playlist for every workout, based on whatever you like to jam to when you’re doin’ burpees.

Free until May 31st, 2020 with promo code on iTunes

If you like lots of options:

All Out Studio

All Out

Sometimes you want

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Women Workout at Home – Female Fitness

Move now! A better me is approaching!

Get fit with the BEST women workout – female fitness app! Sweat 7 mins a day to get a perfect bikini body!

Women Workout – Female Fitness helps you burn belly fat, tone butt, slim legs, trim waistline and get in shape. Follow the home workout to feel the burn. Keep fit and be a better me!

Train your body, burn calories, lose weight, you will get a sexy body before you know it!


√ Quick and effective workouts maximize fat burning
√ Scientifically proven to lose weight and improve health
√ Bodyweight workouts, no equipment needed
√ Weight loss fitness workout for all your body parts
√ Animation and video guidance just like your personal workout trainer
√ 100% FREE! No locked features
√ Beginner friendly
√ Full body workout at home, buttocks workout, abs workout for women, leg workouts for women, fat loss workout, burn fat workout
√ Especially designed fitness for weight loss app free for women
√ Coach tips in every exercise help you use the right form to get the best results
√ Warm-up and stretching routines
√ Track your weight loss progress
√ Track your calories burned
√ Suitable for both beginner and pro
√ Lose weight with your personal trainer
√ Sync data with Google Fit

Short and effective may be one of the reasons that make this fitness for weight loss app stands out from hundreds of workout apps for women and weight loss apps free for women. Try this workout app for women, a better me is on the way!

More features coming soon, such as sync data with Fitbit, Samsung Health, MyFitnessPal…

Female Fitness App
Keep fit and lose belly fat with workout for women. This female fitness app has professional lose belly fat workout and workout for women. All these lose belly fat workout and workout for women can be done anywhere at anytime.

Workout at Home
Take a few minutes a day to keep fit and lose weight with our workout at home. No equipment needed, just use your bodyweight to workout at home.

Fat Burning Workouts & Hiit Workouts
The best fat burning workouts & hiit workouts for better body shape. Burn calories with fat burning workouts, and combine with hiit workouts to get the best results.

Fitness Coach
All workouts are designed by professional fitness coach. Workout guide through the exercise, just like having a personal fitness coach in your pocket!

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Fitness, Running & Yoga Equipment for sale | In Stock

Fitness, Running & Yoga Equipment

Take Your Workout to eBay

A good workout routine starts with the right fitness equipment. Whether you exercise in Zumba classes with your friends, run on a treadmill in your garage or lift weights in your own home gym, you need fitness gear that makes you look and feel your best.

Your Complete Running Store

Some people need a gym full of weight benches, exercise bikes and personal trainers to get motivated to work out. Runners simply need a decent pair of fitness shoes and an open road. No matter how long youve been running, comfortable running clothes are critical to achieving a smooth stride and that illusive “runners high.” Look for clothes made of a wicking material that fit snuggly but arent too tight. Running shoes should be appropriate for your foot type, with stability shoes for a flatter foot and cushioned shoes for a foot with a higher arch.

To log your speed and miles, look for a fitness activity tracker like a running watch, FitBit or Garmin. And dont forget to stretch before and after you run; for maximum comfort during warm up and cool down, a quality exercise mat is a good idea for beginning and experienced runners alike.

Build a Home Gym Without Breaking the Bank

Its hard to make excuses when the gym is right in your basement or garage. Browse eBay for a wide range of fitness equipment so you can build a completely customized home gym. Rowing machines, Bowflex equipment, dumbbells and more—eBay has everything you need to get a full body workout at home. Shop the lowest prices in both new and used fitness equipment. Or if you have some used fitness equipment of your own youd like to unload, sell it on eBay.

Make eBay Your Online Fitness Store

Tired of spending too much for workout equipment in sporting goods and running stores? Its time to take your fitness online. From exercise balls to trampolines, elliptical machines to the Total Gym, eBay has all the exercise equipment you need to get fit and trim for life.

Start the off right by refreshing your style and get gear to support your New Years resolution goals by shopping for fitness, running and yoga equipment to celebrate the New Year.

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