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Recent pauses to two large-scale COVID-19 vaccine trials and a treatment study should reassure people — not frighten them — vaccine experts said, though it is a reminder of the messiness of science.

“This is an indication that the system is working as it was designed to work to protect human subjects in clinical trials,” Lawrence Gostin, a public health and legal expert at Georgetown and Johns Hopkins universities, said Tuesday. “It demonstrates that the ethical guard rails on vaccine trials are working.”

It’s not unusual for late-stage trials of drugs and vaccines to be stopped briefly to examine safety concerns, he and others said.

The discovery of an adverse event and a pause in the clinical trial is actually reassuring, said Dr. Bali Pulendran, a professor of immunology and vaccine design at Stanford University.

“Let’s say they got to the end of the clinical trial and there had not been one single report of any adverse event in the tens of thousands of people involved in the trial. That,” he said, “would worry me. That would be extraordinarily unusual.”

Eli Lilly announced Tuesday it was pausing a trial of an experimental drug similar to one President Donald Trump recently claimed cured him of COVID-19. On Monday, Johnson & Johnson halted a large-scale trial of a candidate COVID-19 vaccine. And, in September, British regulators put a hold on another trial of a candidate vaccine by AstraZeneca. They lifted the hold a week later, but it has continued in the American arm of the study.

COVID-19 vaccine trial on Aug. 5, 2020, in Detroit. (Photo: Henry Ford Health System/AFP via Getty Images)

These occurrences should serve as a reminder that scientific research can be unpredictable, disappointing and time-consuming, specialists said.

“After four decades in vaccines, I expect the unexpected,” said Dr. Gregory Poland, director of the Mayo Vaccine Research Group and editor-in-chief of the journal Vaccine. “The nature of vaccine development is there are always surprises and the unexpected. Everybody’s looking for them, but time has to pass before you actually know.”

According to a new poll from Informa Pharma Intelligence, a business intelligence provider, and research firm YouGov, 35% of Americans don’t trust how quickly the COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials are moving and 23% don’t think pharmaceutical companies have consumers’ best interests in mind.

The public may have unrealistic expectations of avaccine that’s “100% effective and 150% safe,” said Alan Barrett, director of the Sealy Institute for Vaccine Sciences at The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston.

USA TODAY Editorial Board: Don’t inject politics into vaccine policy

But he thinks the companies have shown an impressive attention to safety, including the trial pauses. “We can’t afford to have a mistake,” Barrett said. “The public has to have confidence that any vaccine given to them is going to be safe and effective.”

Only about 31% of all vaccine candidates