List of Anxiety Medications (53 Compared)

Anxiety is an emotion characterized by feelings of tension, worried thoughts, and accompanied by physical symptoms such as sweating, trembling, voice changes, or increased blood pressure. It may also be called nervousness.

Occasional anxiety concerning a stressful or uncomfortable event is normal. However, if a person feels disproportionate levels of anxiety or it is present almost continuously, it might be diagnosed as an anxiety disorder. 

What Causes Anxiety?

Anxiety is part of our survival response and is the way our body responds to potentially harmful or worrying triggers.

Strong emotions or fear cause a surge of epinephrine (also called adrenaline) from our adrenal glands. This increases our heartbeat, increases our sensitivity to our surroundings, and prepares us for physical confrontation or to flee if we perceive any threats to our safety. This is often called the fight or flight response.

Anxieties today mostly revolve around family, friends, health, money, or work. People more at risk of anxiety disorders include those:

  • With relationship problems
  • Whose jobs involve long hours, high workloads, little support, or danger
  • With family members with anxiety disorders
  • With medical conditions that result in significant lifestyle adjustments, pain, or restricted movement
  • Who have experienced stressful or traumatic events
  • Withdrawing from alcohol, opioids, or other substances.

What are the Symptoms of an Anxiety Disorder?

Symptoms of an anxiety disorder are usually out of proportion to the original trigger or stressor.

If these are accompanied by significant physical symptoms such as increased sweating or increased blood pressure then a person is more likely to have an anxiety disorder rather than stimulus-appropriate anxiety.

Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is a chronic, ongoing condition with excessive worry over normal life events, whether minor or major. These feelings are usually out of proportion to the trouble that you may encounter in your everyday life.

With GAD, feelings come on gradually and are present each day, not in one individual attack, and last for months, even years. Worry may be so excessive that it interferes with your daily life. GAD may also be accompanied by depression and substance abuse disorders.

Symptoms of GAD include:

  • Excessive and uncontrollable worry
  • Increased irritability
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • Restlessness or a feeling of being on edge
  • Rapid breathing
  • Excessive perspiration and sweating
  • Trembling, quivering
  • Fatigue
  • Trouble concentrating
  • Headaches, stomach upset
  • Avoidance of circumstances that might trigger severe anxiety
  • Sleep difficulties.

Other anxiety disorders include panic disorder, phobias, selective mutism, social anxiety disorder, and separation anxiety disorder.

How is Anxiety or an Anxiety Disorder Treated?

Treatment depends on the severity and type of anxiety disorder and if it is interfering with everyday life.

Treatments may include:

  • Stress management
  • Relaxation techniques
  • Mental imagery (replacing negative thoughts with positive ones)
  • Cognitive Behavioral therapy
  • Counseling
  • Support
  • Exercise
  • Medications.

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List of Diabetes, Type 2 Medications (161 Compared)

Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes and is characterized by high levels of glucose (sugar) in the blood. Although some symptoms may be similar, it is a different condition to type 1 diabetes.

Unlike people with type 1 diabetes, most people with type 2 diabetes still produce insulin. However, it is either not enough to deal with all the glucose that is in their blood or their cells are unable to recognize the insulin and use it properly (this is called insulin resistance).

Type 2 diabetes usually affects people who are middle-aged or older, and obesity is by far the biggest risk factor. In the past two decades, the condition has become more prevalent in younger people, including children, mainly because of the rising rates of obesity in children. People who do little exercise or of certain ethnicities (such as Native Americans, African-Americans, and Hispanics) are also at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

What are the Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes?

Symptoms of type 2 Diabetes usually come on gradually and may be so subtle that many people do not realize they have the condition. Symptoms may include:

  • Always feeling thirsty
  • Feeling hungry, even though you eat regularly
  • Going to the toilet (urinating) often
  • Getting sick frequently, or frequent skin infections, particularly yeast or fungal infections
  • Infections take longer to heal
  • Feeling tired all the time or lacking in energy
  • Blurred or deteriorating vision.

How is Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosed?

Some doctors screen for diabetes in people of a certain age and it is usually always screened for in pregnant women. If you or your doctor suspects you have type 2 diabetes then they may perform a blood test on the spot that tests for blood sugar levels using a fingerprick or order a blood test that tests for blood sugar levels in the morning after an overnight fast.

Your doctor will also perform an examination and measure your blood pressure. Tests for cholesterol may also be conducted because approximately one-third of people with type 2 diabetes also have high blood pressure and high cholesterol as well.

How is Type 2 Diabetes Treated?

Even though symptoms of type 2 diabetes are barely noticeable in some people, constantly high blood sugar levels cause permanent damage to all the blood vessels and nerves in the body. Untreated diabetes can lead to an increased risk of heart attack and stroke, erectile dysfunction, foot problems, gum disease, eye and kidney disease, and many other problems.

If treatment is not started early, it is too late to reverse any damage once symptoms become more noticeable. Treatments for Type 2 diabetes include:

  • Metformin
  • Sulfonylureas
  • Meglitinides
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • DPP-4 inhibitors
  • GLP-1 receptor agonists
  • SGLT2 inhibitors
  • Insulin.

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